Neurobiological Areas of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorderweb_admin
The common trigger to a post-traumatic stress disorder, is usually traumatic stress, that causes persistent distress in many people.
This type of stress now includes a variety of threats on the personal level, such as sexual assault, combat, a car crash or intensive treatment of cancer. However, the main reason behind this stress disorder is the incomplete emotional processing, with regards to the trauma faced by an individual.
This incomplete and delayed emotional processing eventually results in a protracted and delayed response. However, post-traumatic stress disorder is basically characterized by three major and broad symptom clusters that are as follows;
- Hyper arousal – hyper vigilance, insomnia and improved startle reaction
- Traumatic re-experiencing – memory flashbacks and intrusive nightmares
- Avoidance of everything reminiscent of the trauma
Pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder
There is an emergence of distinct Pathophysiology as an evidence for post-traumatic stress disorder. The post traumatic stress disorder, similar to depression, is associated with the improper secretion of a releasing factor – corticotrophin.
However, unlike depression, this increased secretion is also associated with hypocortisolaemia, which indicates an exaggerated inhibition of negative feedback with regards to the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis – something that is secondary to regulation of the glucocorticoid receptors.
As per neuroimaging studies:
Functional studies of neuroimaging in stress disorder have proven activation of several abnormalities in various cerebral structures. These cerebral structures function in fear responses, memory, and visuospatial processing and include amygdale, hippocampus, anterior cingulated cortex and some other regions of the prefrontal cortex.
Drugs for managing post-traumatic stress disorder
It has become increasingly apparent that various drugs play the first line of defense in treating and managing post – traumatic stress disorder along with psychological treatments. As per the recent Meta analysis of placebo (randomized) trials (controlled one) of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, substantial benefits for core symptoms is observed, with ratios of response ranging between 2.2 to 5.6. Nevertheless, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may also be helpful in reducing anxiety and comorbid depression.