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Personality Disorders

Personality disorder, a type of mental disorder, is a condition in which a person begins to behave, function, and think in an inflexible and unhealthy manner. A person diagnosed with a personality disorder is unable to perceive and relate to people and situations. This results in them experiencing grave problems and restrictions in social activities, work, school, and relationships.

In some cases, a person suffering from a personality disorder may not be aware of them suffering from it. To them, this way of behaving and thinking has become natural to them, which often results in them placing the blame on others for the issues they encounter.

People usually develop personality disorders in their teenage years or early adulthood. There are several types of personality disorders with some more common than others.

The Three Clusters of Personality Disorders

The three clusters personality disorders are grouped in include:

Cluster A Personality Disorders – A person displaying odd and eccentric behavior or thinking. The personality disorders that fall into this category include:

Symptoms of Paranoid Personality Disorder


  • Angry or hostile reaction to alleged remarks or insults
  • Hesitant to trust others due to the irrational fear that others will use the information against them
  • Persistent doubt and suspicion of others and their purpose
  • Tend to have grudges
  • Unwarranted belief that others are trying to injure or deceive them
  • Unwarranted distrust of the loyalty or trustworthiness of others
  • Unwarranted, recurring doubt that their spouse or partner is cheating on them
  • View innocent remarks or nonthreatening situations as personal attacks or insults


Symptoms Schizoid Personality Disorder


  • Appear cold or indifferent to others
  • Lack of interest in personal or social relationships and prefer to be alone
  • Little or no interest in having sexual relations with another person
  • Restricted range of emotional expression
  • Unable to have fun in most activities
  • Unable to pick up normal social cues


Schizotypal Personality Disorder


  • “Magical thinking” — believing they can influence people and events with their thoughts
  • Belief that specific casual occurrences or events have hidden meanings and messages meant only for them
  • Emotionless or inappropriate emotional reactions
  • Give unsympathetic, inappropriate, or apprehensive answers to others
  • Social anxiety and a lack of or uneasiness with close relationships
  • Strange dress beliefs, thinking, speech, or behavior
  • Unusual perceptual experiences such as hearing someone say their name


Cluster B Personality Disorders – A person displaying dramatic, excessively emotional, or erratic behavior or thinking. The personality disorders that fall into this category include:

Antisocial Personality Disorder


  • Constantly being irresponsible
  • Continually lying, stealing, using pseudonyms, and conning others
  • Displaying aggressive and violent behavior
  • Disregard for the needs and feelings of others
  • Impulsive behavior
  • Lack of remorse for their behavior
  • Not caring for the safety of self or others
  • Recurrent issues with the law
  • Repeatedly violating the rights of others


Borderline Personality Disorder


  • Becoming angry frequently
  • Continuing feelings of emptiness
  • Displaying impulsive and dangerous behavior
  • Intense fear of being alone or abandoned
  • Mood swings
  • Stress-related paranoia
  • Suicidal tendency and behavior or threats of self-injury
  • Unstable and intense relationships
  • Unstable or fragile self-image


Histrionic Personality Disorder


  • Craving for attention
  • Easily influenced by others
  • Falsely perceives that they are closer to a person than they are
  • Has strong opinions, but few facts to support them
  • Shallow and quick changing emotions
  • Unnecessary concern with physical appearance
  • Very emotional, dramatic or sexually provocative


Narcissistic Personality Disorder


  • Are arrogant
  • Believe that they are more important than others
  • Envy others or believe other envy them
  • Exaggerate their achievements or talents
  • Expect others to constantly praise and admire them
  • Expect others to give them favors and advantages
  • Fail to distinguish the needs and feelings of others
  • Fantasize about power, achievements, and attractiveness


Cluster C Personality Disorders – A person displays anxious and fearful behavior and thinking. The personality disorders that fall into this category include:

Avoidant Personality Disorder


  • Avoid participating in work activities that require social interactions
  • Fear of disapproval, humiliation, or ridicule
  • Feel inferior, inadequate, or ugly
  • Socially reserved, nervous, and isolated
  • Too sensitive to rejection or criticism
  • Very shy in front of people


Dependent Personality Disorder


  • Extreme dependence on others
  • Fear of having to provide self-care if left alone
  • Poor self-confidence
  • Submissive or insecure behavior
  • Tolerate poor or abusive treatment
  • Unable to disagree with others
  • Unable to start or perform projects
  • Urgency to start a new relationship when one has ended


Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder


  • Details, neatness, and rules occupy their life
  • Extreme perfectionism
  • Inflexible and stubborn behavior
  • Neglect going out and unable to enjoy activities due to commitment
  • Rigid about morality, ethics, or values
  • Tight, stingy control over money
  • Unable to ignore broken or worthless objects
  • Wish to control people, situations, and tasks


If you are experiencing any signs or symptoms of one of these personality disorders, you should see your medical professional for treatment.

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